Universe - explanation and definition of the universe
What is the universe?
The universe is the set of all that exists both material and immaterial, material as stars, planets, star systems, nebulae, galaxies, clusters of galaxies... like everything immaterial as energy, space, time... When we look at the sky seems the universe we see is static and quiet, but in reality the universe is changing, full of titanic explosions, collisions huge and strange and beautiful phenomena that create and develop life.
According to the Big Bang theory about 13,700 million years ago all the mass and energy of the universe was concentrated in an infinitely small and dense point which exploded giving rise to space and time as well as the set of fundamental particles that came together to shape the matter and energy.
The Big Bang model bases its development in the theory of general relativity pronounced by Einstein, initially Alexander Friedman and other scientists of the time developed a set of solutions to the equations proposed by the theory of general relativity concluding that the universe is not static but may expand or contract, these conclusions obtained the Belgian Jesuit George Lemaitre being the first to propose the origin of the universe after the possible explosion of a primeval atom.
For several years the scientific community did not consider the theory of the Big Bang to see it more as a theory of science fiction as a scientific theory supported by experiments and observations, but in 1929 the famous astronomer Edwin Hubble discovered that galaxies are moving away each other concluding that the universe is not static but is expanding, thanks to this discovery known as Hubble's law scientists relied to defend the model of the Big Bang, if the universe is not static and actually expands then millions of years ago galaxies were closer together until originally all galaxies and elements of the universe were concentrated at a single point which exploded doing the origin of space and time and causing the continued expansion of the universe.
Later in 1965 scientists Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson while using a radiometer found an annoying hum existing anywhere in the sky where pointed their antennas, both scientists discovered that in the universe there were remnants of heat as the electromagnetic signal large explosion 13,700 million years ago, known as microwave background radiation that phenomenon is known as the echo of the Big Bang. In 2001 was launched into space the WMAP probe with the main objective of film the radiation of microwaves throughout the entire known universe showing the footprints that leave the big bang thanks to which could calculate the true age of universe, 13,720 million years.
Currently the Big Bang theory is the model accepted by most of the scientific community, but there are several scientific currents that study and defends alternative models to the origin of the universe as the theory of the Big Freeze, clashes between branes or the existence of multiverse.
Thanks to discoveries about the origin of the universe developed world during the last century, now we know that the universe had a beginning about 13,720 million years ago, rejecting the idea of ??an eternal and infinite universe, today nobody doubts that such everything in nature the universe has an origin and have an end. If the consensus of the scientific community on a model that explains the origin of the universe is difficult, not least is to find an accepted by the scientific community to explain its end, there are now several models and theories that propose alternative endings to our universe being the most accepted the following:
The Big Freeze model argues that the continued expansion of the universe occur within a billion years the extinction of all the stars leading to a cold and dark universe.
The theory of the Big Rip or large tear indicates that the more the universe's dark energy expands is generated, predicting a moment in time in which dark energy win the battle to gravity breaking the balance between the two forces and making any type of matter from entire galaxies to microscopic particles disintegrate.
Finally the Big Crush defends the contraction of the universe after its maximum expansion, at that time the universe will concentrate on itself until everything is unified and focus on a single point giving rise to a new Big Bang.
Structure and composition of the universe
The universe is composed mainly of space, time, energy and matter, the grouping of these elements together with the existence of the 4 fundamental forces in nature (gravitational, electromagnetic, strong and weak nuclear) has led to the set of elements and celestial bodies present in all corners of the universe.
At a large scale universe consists in galaxies which are connected to each other giving rise to clusters of galaxies, in turn these clusters are connected to other clusters resulting in a net cosmic which expands throughout the universe.
Galaxies are clusters of stars, planets, gas, dust and other celestial bodies where the gravitational force holding together the other giving rise to various forms such as spiral, elliptical or irregular galaxies around. Our planet Earth is located in one of the arms of the barred spiral galaxy called the Milky Way, one of the existing hundred billion galaxies in the observable universe.
The main elements of galaxies are the stars, huge balls of fire where the gravitational action along with pressure and temperature have triggered nuclear reactions inside, converting hydrogen into helium atoms and releasing energy during this process as electromagnetic radiation through which our Sun enlightens us and gives us an ideal temperature for the development of life.
Stars are born in accumulations of dust and gas called nebulae, during birth originate in turn other celestial bodies that orbit it like planets, satellites, asteroids, comets...
The stars may end their lives in different ways depending on the size at which they were born, for example within 5,000 million years our Sun will expand engulfing our planet Earth into a red giant, then it will dispose of the outer layers giving in a white dwarf. When the stars contain several times the mass of our Sun its final death gives way to a big explosion called a supernova, where the star exceeds 100 times the solar mass explosion is known as the largest hypernova explosion recorded throughout the universe after the Big Bang possible, this titanic explosion will give way to one of the most mysterious objects in the universe, a black hole.
Aside stars, planets and galaxies, the universe has other elements which we know exist but do not know much of its properties and nature such as dark matter, dark energy, black holes and the hypothetical wormholes... All we can see do no more than 4% of the universe.
Universe or Multiverse
The science throughout the centuries has shown that our solids knowledge of the universe collapsed when geniuses from different periods studied, formulated and demonstrated new theories on the operation and the nature of the universe, for centuries believed that the earth was the center the universe, then we discover that our planet orbits the sun as do other planets like Mars, Jupiter or Saturn, with the passage of time and technological advances we discover that we belong to a galaxy that we call Milky Way in which our Star the Sun is one of the 300,000 million stars that houses our galaxy, in turn along with other galaxies "close" We are part of the Virgo cluster which are connected to each other forming the material we know the universe, a unique 4% matter and energy in the observable universe. With this evolution of our knowledge about the universe why there can be no other similar or different universes to ours?.
Over the past decades scientists around the world have been developed and refined his hypotheses on the possible existence of multiple universes. Challenging our conception of reality and the universe these scientists have developed their hypotheses about the multiverse theory.
Multiverses bubble shapes where the physical constants that govern them are different from each other leading to universes where gravity is so weak that no star has created or otherwise universe where gravity is so intense that has created a gigantic black hole that occupies the entire space.
Other hypotheses suggest the existence of multiple universes with the same physical constants to ours but where matter is distributed differently, so we would find universes where our planet orbited around 2 stars and there were no night.
Multiverses that rely on the principles of probability governing quantum mechanics, in this hypothesis defends the existence of multiple universes which grow exponentially as a function of the likelihood that an action occurs, so under this theory there is a universe where you are the president of your country and another where you are the first astronaut to set foot on Mars.
Brane multiverse with the shape of a thin slice of bread in which each universe is separated from each other by a millionth of a millimeter, when two branes collide an explosion equivalent originates a new Big Bang destroying the old and creating them again.
Universes located within black holes belonging to other higher universes, universes that are destroyed cyclical and every certain time are created universes where physical laws are different from each other... What is the true nature of the universe?.
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